A United Front? The 1890s

Delegate National American Woman Suffrage Association 31st Annual Convention


In 1890 NWSA and AWSA are combine and are reborn as a united organization, the National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA) under the presidency of Elizabeth Cady Stanton. 

Ida B Wells Label
Hannah Solomon Label
Elizabeth Cady Stanton


 In 1895 an aging Elizabeth Cady Stanton publishes her controversial The Woman's Bible. After its publication, NAWSA distances itself from Stanton as many suffragists believe that her radicial actions and agenda would damage the suffrage campaign. 

Banner with motto of the National Association of Colored Women's Clubs

Banner with motto of the National Association of Colored Women's Clubs, 2010.2.1abc, Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture


In 1896 Mary Church Terrell, Ida B. Wells-Barnett, Margaret Murray Washington, Fanny Jackson Coppin, Frances Ellen Watkins Harper, Charlotte Forten Grimké, and former slave Harriet Tubman meet in Washington, D.C. to form the National Association of Colored Women (NACW). Suffrage is an important goal of the NACW, but the organization also works tirelessly to improve the lives of African Americans. Black suffragists find that many white suffragists are not interested in the challenges they face and Black women form their own groups outside of white "single issue" organizations.